Here is an example of an original oratory :
The purpose of an original oratory is to present a point or side persuasively.
This work may not be used without permission from Brendon Collier.
Have you ever wondered what happens after a crime is committed? The law
enforcement agencies investigate and hopefully find the criminal. For example,
think of the O.J. Simpson trial. Some people say that Mr. Simpson is guilty.
They say that a fair trial was not obtained. Today I am going to cover the
major aspects of the criminal justice system and why the justice system
is fair. The Justice System is divided into two major parts, the Federal
and State courts. Federal and State courts are fairly similar but there
are several differences. The Federal Courts have three major sectors. The
major courts are courts of general jurisdiction. These courts are the first
to hear about offenses to Federal law or violations to the Constitution.
These cases are decided by a judge or a jury. If the defendant loses he
or she may go to appellate courts. These are the courts that handle the
appeals. If the prosecution loses, however, they may not appeal and try
the person again. This would be what is called "double jeopardy",
which is prohibited by the Constitution. If the defendant loses in appellate
court they may appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States of America.
This is the nation's highest court. The Supreme Court has twelve justices
on it. These justices may refuse to look at the case or the may rule on
it. If they rule not guilty the accused is set free. If they rule guilty
they criminal stays in jail. This is the highest level of appeal the criminals
can submit. State courts are basically the same except they have what are
called minor case courts. These courts include motor vehicle courts, small
claims courts, domestic abuse courts, along with others. State courts also
have courts of general jurisdiction courts, which deal with state law violations.
The appeals and Supreme courts work the same as Federal courts. During the
actual trial the defendant has many rights. Today's court system is based
on the belief you are innocent until proven guilty. These rights guarantee
a fair trial. These right help guarantee the right person is punished. One
major right is the Miranda rights. The Miranda rights were passed by the
Supreme court after a man named Ernesto Miranda confessed to murder without
any rights being read. Anyone who has watched a police show knows what the
Miranda rights are. They are the right to remain silent, the right to an
attorney, and that anything you say can and will be used against you. These
rights alert you that a confession may be used against you. If you confess
before your rights are read it will not stand up in court. Another major
right is the 4th and 6th Amendments. These guarantee the right to a lawyer
and prohibit illegal search and seizure. In the case of the 4th Amendment
if someone cannot afford a lawyer a public defender is appointed to defend
him. With the 6th Amendment you need to have a legitimate warrant to search
someone's house or car. For example if a police officer thought his neighbor
was a drug dealer and he raided his house and found drugs this wouldn't
hold up in court because it wasn't a legal search. Another right is written
into the Constitution. It says you have the "right to be astonished".
This means you have the right to deny your crimes. It would be like saying,
"Me commit a crime? Never!". You are astonished to be accused.
Before the trial in Iowa the evidence against the accused is put before
a Grand jury, which is citizen from the state. If the Grand Jury decides
there is enough evidence you are indicted. An indictment is a formal hearing
on the charges. You state your plea, guilty or not guilty, here. If you
plead not guilty the presiding judge passes sentence, or the punishment
for the crime. If not the case goes to trial. During the actual trial the
State's case is presented by the District Attorney and the defendant has
his own lawyer. Both sides present an opening statement outline their case.
The they call the witnesses they think will support their side of the case.
Once both side are done with witnesses they move into their closing statements.
These overview the highlights of the case. Then the case is decide by a
judge or a jury. In the case of a jury the entire jury has to reach the
same decision or it is considered a hung jury and the case is retried. Otherwise
the accused either goes free or restarts the appeals process. In conclusion,
the Justice system isn't really that complicated. It is also very fair and
just. I hope that today you have gained a better understanding of the Criminal
justice system in the United States.